An estimated 700,000 people across the country, the majority already in disadvantaged situations, lost their jobs, their homes or both. Without medication, thousands of households lost caregivers, breadwinners or both. Could they provide basic psychological therapies for the people of Mbare? And with fewer resources to deal with the consequences of the destruction, people were wrapped up in a vicious cycle of poverty and mental illness. Chibanda was the among the first people to measure the psychological toll of Operation Murambatsvina. With the buildings of the clinic already full of patients with infectious diseases, Chibanda and the grandmothers decided that a wooden bench placed under the shade of a tree would provide a suitable platform for their project. Nigel James, the health promotion officer at the Mbare clinic. After surveying 12 health clinics in Harare, he found that over 40 per cent of people scored highly on psychological health questionnaires, a large majority of whom met the clinical threshold for depression. Using terms such as kufungisisa as screening tools, Abas and her team found that depression was nearly twice as common as in a similar community in Camberwell.
The death of a child left behind grief, trauma and, as Abas and her team found, a husband who might abuse his wife for her ‘failure’ as a mother. We all whiter teeth, and with so many unique boutique on the market, not to mention the procedures that the internet may offer, who would have ever thought it could be a complicated decision. Those places where resistance might have emerged, such as Mbare, were hit the hardest. It would take me the rest of my life – if then – to travel to all the places and shops, lets alone individuals, to see all those elephants for sale. You should respond and take action that proves that you listened to the customer and want the sale. Pricing is vital at a sale as it can attract buyers or keep them away. You can also keep tabs on both staff and attendee activities. Avoid these nutrients and cigarettes to keep your smile looking its best. Beach slippers like flip flops are best ones to wear on hot sands. Even so, views like Carothers’s had been echoed over decades of colonialism, becoming so commonplace that they were considered to be somewhat of a truism.
Even if depression was present in such populations, it was thought to be expressed through physical complaints, a phenomenon known as somatising. Adding to earlier reports from Ghana, Uganda and Nigeria, Abas’s work was a classic study that helped demonstrate that depression wasn’t a Westernised disease, as psychiatrists like Carothers had once thought. The grandmothers thought that this sounded overly medical and were worried that no one would want to sit on such a bench. Through their discussions, Chibanda and the grandmothers came up with another name: Chigaro Chekupanamazano, or, as it became known, the Friendship Bench. Chibanda was sceptical. “Initially, I thought: how could this possibly work, with these grandmothers?” he says. But Chibanda soon discovered what a resource the grandmothers were. There was no money for mental health services in Mbare. In 1953, John Carothers, a colonial psychiatrist who had previously worked at Mathari Mental Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, published a report for the World Health Organization claiming just this.